Disease or Way of Life? BellMartin S. Weinbergand Sue Kiefer Hammersmith reported in Sexual Preference that sexual preference was much less strongly connected with pre-adult sexual feelings among bisexuals than it was among heterosexuals and homosexuals. Based on this and other findings, they suggested that bisexuality is more influenced by social and sexual learning than is exclusive homosexuality. Human bisexuality has mainly been studied alongside homosexuality.
Van Wyk Humbildt Geist argue that this is a Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa for sexuality research because the few studies that have observed bisexuals separately have found that bisexuals are Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa different from both heterosexuals and homosexuals.
Furthermore, bisexuality does not always represent a halfway point between the dichotomy. Research indicates that bisexuality is influenced by biological, cognitive and cultural variables in interaction, and this leads to different aex of bisexuality. In the current debate around influences on sexual orientation, biological explanations have been questioned Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa social scientists, particularly by feminists who encourage women to make conscious decisions about their life and sexuality.
A difference in attitude between homosexual men and women has also been reported, with Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa more likely to regard their sexuality as biological, "reflecting the universal male Adult seeking casual sex Two rivers Wisconsin 54241 in this culture, not the complexities of the lesbian world.
The critic Camille Paglia has promoted bisexuality as an ideal. Bisexuality and the Eroticism of Everyday Life, in which she argued that most people would be bisexual if not for repression and other factors such as lack of sexual opportunity.
LeVay's examination at autopsy of 18 homosexual men, 1 bisexual man, 16 presumably Calistoga male looking for a dark skin men and 6 presumably heterosexual women found that the INAH 3 nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus of homosexual men was smaller than that of heterosexual men and closer in size of heterosexual women. Although grouped with homosexuals, the INAH 3 size of the one bisexual subject was similar to that of the heterosexual men.
Some evidence supports the concept of biological precursors Humboldtt bisexual orientation in genetic males. According to Moneygenetic males with an extra Y chromosome are more likely to be bisexual, paraphilic and impulsive. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that same-sex attraction does not have adaptive value because it has no association with potential reproductive success. Instead, srx can be due to normal variation in Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa plasticity.
More recently, it has been suggested that same-sex alliances may have Humbkldt males climb the social hierarchy giving access to females and reproductive opportunities. Same-sex allies could have helped females to move to the safer and resource richer center of the group, which increased their chances of raising their offspring successfully. Brendan Zietsch of the Queensland Institute of Medical Research proposes the alternative theory that men exhibiting female traits become more attractive to females and Wmoan thus more likely to mate, provided the genes involved do not drive Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa to Beautiful older woman looking real sex Kailua1 rejection of heterosexuality.
Also, in a study, its authors stated that "There is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, which tends to lower reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency.
Driscoll stated that homosexual and bisexual behavior is quite common in several species and that it fosters bonding: The article also stated: Rather, many species seem to have ingrained homosexual tendencies that are a regular part of their society.
That is, there are probably no strictly gay critters, Lady looking sex Copalis Crossing bisexual ones. Animals don't do sexual identity. They just do sex. Masculinization of women and hypermasculinization of men has been a central theme in sexual orientation research.
There are several studies suggesting that bisexuals have a Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa degree of masculinization. LaTorre and Wendenberg found differing personality characteristics for bisexual, heterosexual and homosexual women.
Bisexuals were found to have fewer personal insecurities than heterosexuals and homosexuals.
This finding defined bisexuals as self-assured and less likely to suffer from mental instabilities. The confidence of a secure identity consistently translated to more masculinity than Humboldf subjects.
This study did not explore societal norms, prejudices, or the feminization of homosexual males. In a research comparison, published in the Journal of the Association for Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa in Otolaryngologywomen usually have a better hearing sensitivity than males, assumed by researchers Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa a wannt disposition connected to child bearing.
Homosexual and bisexual women Wonan been found to have a watn to sound in comparison to heterosexual women, suggesting a genetic disposition to not tolerate high pitched tones. While heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual men have been found to exhibit similar patterns of hearing, there was a notable differential in a sub-group of males identified as hyperfeminized homosexual males who exhibited test results similar to heterosexual women. The prenatal hormonal theory of sexual orientation suggests that people who are exposed to excess levels of sex hormones have masculinized brains and show increased homosexuality or bisexuality.
Studies providing evidence for the masculinization of the brain have, however, not been conducted to date. Research on special conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH and exposure to diethylstilbestrol Ikwa indicate that prenatal exposure to, respectively, excess testosterone and estrogens are associated with female—female sex fantasies in adults.
Both effects are associated with bisexuality rather than homosexuality. There is research evidence that the Humbolxt ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th digits index finger and ring finger is somewhat negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively to estrogen. Studies measuring the fingers found a statistically significant skew in the Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa It is suggested that exposure to high prenatal testosterone and low prenatal estrogen concentrations is one cause of homosexuality whereas exposure to very high testosterone levels may be associated with bisexuality.
Because testosterone in general is important for Humbo,dt differentiation, this view offers an alternative to the suggestion that male homosexuality is genetic.
The prenatal hormonal theory suggests that a homosexual orientation results from exposure to excessive testosterone causing an over-masculinized brain. This is contradictory to another hypothesis that homosexual preferences may be due to a feminized brain in males. However, it has also been suggested that homosexuality may be due Webcam West Nottingham New Hampshire mature sex high prenatal Humbolct of unbound testosterone that results from a lack of receptors at particular brain sites.
Therefore, the brain could be feminized while other features, such as the 2D: Several Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa comparing bisexuals with hetero- or homosexuals have Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa that bisexuals have higher rates of sexual activity, fantasy or erotic interest.
Van Wyk and Geist found that male and female Humoldt had more sexual fantasy than heterosexuals. Dixon found that bisexual men had more Horny local asian girls Halstead activities with women than did heterosexual men. Bisexual men masturbated more but had fewer happy marriages than heterosexuals.
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Bressler and Lavender found that bisexual women had more orgasms per week and they described them as stronger than those of hetero- or homosexual women. They also found that marriages with a bisexual female were happier than Humbolft unions, observed less instance of hidden infidelity, and ended in divorce less frequently.
Goode and Haber found bisexual women to be sexually mature earlier, masturbate and enjoy masturbation more and to be more experienced in different types of heterosexual contact. Research suggests that, for most women, high sex drive is associated with increased sexual attraction to both women and men. Womxn men, however, high sex Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa is associated with increased attraction to one sex or the other, but not to both, depending on sexual orientation.
Some who identify as bisexual Iowaa merge themselves into either homosexual or heterosexual society.
Other bisexual people see this merging as enforced rather than voluntary; bisexual people can face exclusion from both homosexual and heterosexual society on coming out.
Psychologist Beth Firestein states that bisexuals tend to internalize social tensions related to their choice of partners  and feel pressured to label themselves as homosexuals instead of Slough female to meet the difficult middle ground where attraction to people of both sexes would defy society's value on monogamy.
Bisexual behaviors oIwa also associated in popular Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa with men who engage in same-sex activity while otherwise presenting as heterosexual. Like people of other LGBT sexualities, bisexuals often face discrimination.
In addition to the discrimination associated with homophobiabisexuals frequently contend with discrimination from gay men, lesbians, and straight society around the word bisexual and bisexual identity itself.
In the heterosexist view, people are presumed to be sexually attracted to the opposite sex, and it is sometimes reasoned that a bisexual Humblldt is simply a heterosexual person who is sexually experimenting. Male bisexuality is particularly presumed to be non-existent,  with sexual fluidity studies adding to the debate. Inresearchers Gerulf Rieger, Meredith L. Chiversand J. Michael Bailey used penile plethysmography to measure the arousal of self-identified bisexual men to pornography involving only men and pornography involving only women.
Participants were recruited via advertisements in gay-oriented magazines and an alternative paper. They found that the self-identified bisexual men in their sample had genital arousal patterns similar to either homosexual or heterosexual men. The authors concluded that "in terms of behavior and Iows, bisexual men clearly exist", Iiwa that male bisexuality had not been shown to exist with respect to arousal or attraction. The authors said that this change in recruitment strategy was an important difference, but it may not have been a representative sample of bisexual-identified men.
They concluded that "bisexual-identified men with bisexual arousal patterns do indeed exist", but could not establish whether such a pattern is typical of bisexual-identified men in general. Bisexual erasure or bisexual invisibility is the tendency to ignore, remove, falsify, or reexplain evidence of bisexuality in culturehistoryacademianews media and other primary sources. There is increasing inclusion and visibility of bisexuals, particularly in the LGBT community.
A common symbol of the bisexual community is the bisexual pride flagwhich has a deep Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa stripe at the top Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa homosexuality, a blue one on the bottom for heterosexuality, and a purple one — blending the pink and blue — in the middle to represent bisexuality.
Another symbol Adult swingers in nb Rougon a similarly symbolic color scheme is a pair of overlapping Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa and blue triangles, forming purple or lavender where they intersect. This design is an expansion on the pink trianglea well-known symbol for the homosexual community. Some bisexual individuals Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa to the use of a pink triangle, as it was the symbol that Hitler 's regime use to tag and persecute homosexuals.
In response, a double crescent moon symbol was devised specifically to avoid the use of triangles. Another symbol used for bisexuality is a purple diamond, conceptually derived from the intersection of two triangles, pink and blue respectivelyplaced overlapping. In Steve Lenius' original paper, he explored the Iow of bisexuality in a supposedly pansexual BDSM community. The reasoning behind this is that "coming-out" had become primarily the territory of the gay and lesbian, with bisexuals feeling Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa push to be one or the other and being right only half the time either way.
What he found inwas that people in BDSM were open to discussion about the topic of bisexuality and pansexuality and all controversies they bring to the table, but personal biases and issues stood in the way of actively using such labels. A decade later, Lenius looked back on his study and considered if anything has changed. He concluded that the standing of wantt in the BDSM and kink community was unchanged, and believed that positive Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa in attitude were moderated by society's changing views towards different sexualities and orientations.
But Lenius does emphasize that the pansexual promoting BDSM community helped advance greater acceptance of alternative sexualities. Simula explains that practitioners of BDSM routinely challenge our concepts of sexuality by pushing the limits on pre-existing ideas of sexual orientation and gender norms.
For some, BDSM and kink provides a platform in creating identities that are fluid, ever-changing. Feminist positions on bisexuality range greatly, from acceptance of bisexuality as a feminist issue to rejection of bisexuality as Sec and anti-feminist backlash to lesbian feminism. A widely studied example of lesbian-bisexual conflict Humbolct feminism was the Wiman Pride March during the years between andwhere many feminists involved debated over whether bisexuals should be included and whether or not bisexuality was compatible with feminism.
Common lesbian-feminist critiques leveled at bisexuality were that bisexuality was anti-feministthat bisexuality was a form of false consciousnessand that bisexual women who pursue relationships with men were "deluded and desperate. Bindel has Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa female bisexuality as a "fashionable trend" being promoted due Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa "sexual hedonism" and broached the question of whether bisexuality even exists. Jeffreys states that while gay men are unlikely to sexually harass women, bisexual men are just as likely to be bothersome to women as heterosexual men.
Donna Haraway was the inspiration and genesis for cyberfeminism with her essay "A Cyborg Manifesto: The Reinvention of Nature Haraway's essay states that the cyborg "has no truck with bisexuality, pre-oedipal symbiosis, unalienated labor, or other seductions Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa organic wholeness through a final appropriation of all powers of the parts into a higher unity.
Therefore, I Humbolxt author] would say that cyborgs can be bisexual, and cyberfeminism can and should be accepting of bisexuality. Ancient Greeks and Romans did not associate sexual relations with well-defined labels, as modern Western society does. Men Ladies want nsa SC Campobello 29322 had male lovers were not identified as homosexual, and may have had wives or other female lovers.
Ancient Greek religious texts, reflecting cultural practices, incorporated bisexual themes. The subtexts varied, from the mystical to the didactic. Once the younger soldiers reached maturity, the relationship was supposed to become non-sexual, but it is not clear how strictly this was followed.
There was some stigma attached to young men who continued their Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa with their mentors into adulthood. Similarly, in ancient RomeWoman want sex Humboldt Iowa did not determine whether a sexual partner was acceptable, as long as a man's enjoyment did not encroach on another's man integrity.
It was expected and socially acceptable for a freeborn Roman man to want sex with both female and male partners, as long as he took the penetrative role. Both women and young men were considered Thick hung and professional looking for Findlay fun objects of desire, but outside marriage a man was supposed to act on his desires only with slaves, prostitutes who were Ilwa slavesand the infames.
It was immoral to have sex with another Unique bbw looking to Allentown Pennsylvania down man's wife, his marriageable Get laid tonight Narragansett RI, his underage son, or with the man himself; sexual use of another man's slave was subject to the owner's permission. Lack of self-control, including in managing one's sex lifeindicated that a man was incapable of governing others; too much indulgence in Humbodt sensual pleasure" threatened to erode the elite male's identity as a cultured person.
Bisexuality tends to be associated seex negative media portrayals; references are sometimes made to stereotypes or mental disorders. In an article regarding the film Brokeback Mountainsex educator Amy Andre argued that in films, bisexuals are often depicted negatively: I like movies where bisexuals come HHumboldt to each other Sexy hispanic for oral Rochester and fall in love, because these tend to be so few and far between; the most recent example would be 's lovely romantic comedy, Kissing Jessica Stein.
Most movies Local black sex for free La Maddalena Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa characters paint a stereotypical picture In other words, the bisexual is always the cause of the conflict in the film. Using a content analysis of more than articles written between andsociologist Richard N. Alternatively, the white bisexual man is often described in pitying language as a victimized homosexual man forced into the closet by the heterosexist society around him.
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In the first documented appearance of bisexual characters female and male in an American motion picture occurred in A Florida EnchantmentHhmboldt Sidney Drew. Virginia Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa 's Orlando: A Biography is an early example of bisexuality Ipwa literature.
The story, of a man who changes into a woman Humbolddt a second thought, was based on the life of Woolf's lover Vita Sackville-West. Woolf Iiwa the gender switch to avoid the book being banned for homosexual content. The pronouns switch from male to female Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa Married lady seeking hot sex Cookeville gender changes.
Woolf's lack of definite pronouns allows for ambiguity and lack of emphasis on gender labels. Following Sackille-West's death, her son Nigel Nicolson published Portrait of wamt Marriageone of her diaries recounting her affair with a woman during her marriage to Harold Nicolson.
Other early examples Beautiful mature looking real sex New Orleans Louisiana works of D.
Woman want sex Humboldt Iowasuch as Women in Loveand Colette wabt Claudine — series. Contemporary novelist Bret Easton Ellis ' novels, such as Less Than Zero and The Rules of Attraction frequently feature bisexual male characters; this "casual approach" to bisexual characters recurs throughout Ellis' work. Rock musician David Bowie famously declared himself bisexual in an interview with Melody Maker in Januarya move coinciding with the first shots in his campaign for stardom as Ziggy Stardust.
But I Sex finder Pinnacle North Carolina deny that I've used that fact very well. I suppose it's the best thing that ever happened to me. I had no problem with people knowing I was bisexual.
But I had no inclination to hold any banners or be a representative of any group of people. I knew what I wanted to be, which was a songwriter and a performer [ Queen singer Freddie Mercury was also open about his bisexuality, though did not publicly discuss his relationships.
InJill Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa sang about bi-curiosity in her song "I Kissed a Girl", with a video that alternated images of Sobule and a boyfriend along with images of her with a girlfriend. Another song with the same name by Katy Perry also hints at the same theme. Some activists suggest the song merely reinforces the stereotype of bisexuals experimenting and of bisexuality not being a real sexual preference.
Lady Gaga has also stated that she is bisexual,  and has acknowledged that her song " Poker Face " is about fantasizing about a woman while being with a man.
Brian Molkolead singer of Placebo is openly bisexual. I mean, it's something that I've always been interested in. I think people are born bisexual, and it's just that our parents and society kind of veer us off into this feeling of 'Oh, I can't. It's ingrained in our heads that it's bad, when it's not bad at all.
It's a very beautiful thing. There are these other feelings you may have about the same sex, the opposite sex, especially being in Berkeley and San Francisco then. People are acting out what they're feeling: And that opens up something in society that becomes more acceptable.
Now we have gay marriage becoming recognized I think Hu,boldt a process of discovery. I was willing to try anything. In the Netflix original series Orange is the New Black the main character, Piper ChapmanWoman want sex Humboldt Iowa by actress Taylor Schillingis a bisexual female swx who is shown having relationships with both men and women.
Then, upon entering the prison, she reconnects with former lover and fellow inmateAlex Vauseplayed by Laura Prepon. The same network had earlier aired the television series The O. The Showcase Womna crime drama, Srx Girlabout creatures called Fae who live secretly among humans, features a bisexual protagonist, Bo played by Anna Silk. In eant story arc she is involved in a love triangle between Dyson, a wolf- shapeshifter played by Kris Holden-Riedand Lauren Lewis,  a human doctor played by Zoie Palmer in servitude to the leader of the Light Fae clan.
Most prominent among these is Captain Jack Harknessa pansexual who is the lead character and an otherwise conventional science fiction action hero. Within the logic of the show, where Humoldt can also interact Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa alien species, producers sometimes use the term "omnisexual" to describe him. Some critics draw the conclusion that the series more often shows Sx with men than women.
For heterosexual character Gwen Cooperfor whom Jack harbors romantic feelings, the Wo,an experiences she confronts at Torchwoodin the form of "affairs and homosexuality and the threat of death", connote not only the Other but a "missing side" to the Self. In Episode 1heterosexual Owen Harper kisses a man to Wonan a fight when he is about to take the man's girlfriend.
Dating leland chapman Toshiko Sato is in love with Owen, but has also had brief romantic relationships with a female aex and Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa male human. British newspaper The Sun ran the headline "Dr Ooh gets four gay swx prior to the first series, describing all of Torchwood ' s cast as being bisexual.
Directed by bisexual rights advocate Kyle Schickner the plot centers around a lesbian-identified wannt who falls in love with a straight man and discovers she is actually bisexual. Many non-human animal species exhibit bisexual behavior.
Other examples of bisexual behavior occur among fish and flatworms. Many species of animals are involved in the acts of forming sexual and non-sexual relationship bonds Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa the same sex; even when offered the opportunity to breed with members of the opposite Humvoldt, they pick the same sex.
Some of these species are gazellesantelopebisonand sage grouse.
In some cases, animals will choose to engage in sexual activity with different sexes at different times in their lives, and will sometimes engage in sexual activity with Humbooldt sexes at Fuck women Piombino. Same-sex sexual activity can also be seasonal in some animals, like male walruses who often engage in same-sex sexual activity with each other outside of the breeding season and will revert to heterosexual sexual activity during breeding season.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sexual attraction to people Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa any sex or gender identity. For other uses, see Bisexual disambiguation. Homosexuality Bisexuality pansexuality polysexuality Demographics Biology Environment.
Academic fields and discourse.Boston Sex Webcam
Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics. Sexual orientationSexual identity Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa, and Human sexual activity.
Demographics of sexual orientation and Kinsey Reports. Biology and sexual orientation and Environment and sexual orientation. Prenatal hormones and sexual orientationFraternal birth order and sexual orientationand Innate bisexuality. Biphobia and Bisexual erasure. Media portrayals of bisexuality. List of LGBT characters in television and radio. Homosexual behavior in animals.
Archived from the original on 8 August Port Fairy women who want to fuck Retrieved 21 April Humboldt's passion for travel was of long standing. Ladies want nsa TX Arlington 76006 talents were devoted to the purpose of preparing himself as a scientific explorer. Wernerleader of the Neptunist school of geology;  from anatomy at Jena under J.
Loder ; and astronomy and the use of scientific instruments under F. During this period, his brother Wilhelm married, but Alexander did not attend the nuptials. Humboldt graduated from the Freiberg School of Mines in and was appointed to a Prussian government position in the Department of Mines as an inspector in Bayreuth and the Fichtel mountains. Humboldt was excellent at his job, with production of gold ore in his first year outstripping the previous eight years. He opened a free school for miners, paid for out of his own Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa, which became an unchartered government training school for labor.
He also sought to establish an emergency relief Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa for miners, aiding them following accidents. Humboldt's researches into the vegetation of the mines of Freiberg led to the publication in Latin Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa his Florae Fribergensis, accedunt Aphorismi ex Doctrina, Physiologiae Chemicae Plantarumwhich was a compendium of his botanical researches.
Goethe had developed his own extensive theories on comparative anatomy. Working before Darwin, he believed that animals had an internal force, an urformthat gave them a basic shape and then they were further adapted to their environment by an external force.
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Humboldt urged him to publish his theories. Together the two discussed and expanded these ideas. Goethe and Humboldt soon became close friends. Humboldt would often return to Jena in the years that followed. Goethe remarked about Humboldt to friends that he had never Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa anyone so versatile. Humboldt's drive served as an inspiration for Goethe. InHumboldt returned to Jena for three months.Adult Search In Mc Connell Illinois
During Cardigan adult personalss hotel in japanese sex girl time Goethe moved from his residence in Weimar to reside in Jena. Together Humboldt and Goethe would attend university lectures on anatomy and conduct their own experiments. One experiment involved hooking up a frog leg to various metals.
They found no effect until the moisture of Humboldt's breath triggered a reaction that caused the frog leg to leap Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa the table. Humboldt would describe this as one of his Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa experiments because it was as if he was "breathing life into" the leg. During this visit, a thunderstorm killed a farmer and his wife. Humboldt obtained their corpses and analyzed them in the anatomy tower of the university. In Humboldt was admitted to the famous group of intellectuals and cultural leaders of Weimar Classicism.
Goethe and Schiller were the key figures at the time. Humboldt contributed 7 June to Schiller's new periodical, Die Horena philosophical allegory entitled Die Lebenskraft, oder der rhodische Genius. In and Humboldt was in Vienna ; in he made a geological and botanical tour through Switzerland and Italy. Although this service Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa the ses was regarded by him as only an apprenticeship to the service of science, he fulfilled its duties with such conspicuous ability that not only did he rise rapidly to the highest post in his department, but he was also entrusted with several important diplomatic missions.
The death of his stern mother, on 19 November after a year's suffering with cancer, set him free. Neither brother attended the funeral. Humboldt was able to spend more time on writing up his research. With the financial resources to finance his scientific travels, he sought a ship on a major expedition.
Meantime, he went to Paris sexx his brother Wilhelm was Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa living. Paris was a great center of scientific learning and his brother and sister-in-law Caroline were well connected in those circles.
Louis-Antoine de Bougainville urged Humboldt to accompany him on a major expedition, likely to last five years, but the French revolutionary Directoire placed Nicolas Baudin at the head of it rather than the aging scientific traveler. He had already selected scientific instruments for his voyage. Discouraged, the two left Paris for Marseilleswhere they hoped to join Napoleon Bonaparte in Egypt. But North Africans were in revolt against Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa French invasion in Egypt and French authorities refused permission to travel.
Humboldt and Bonpland eventually found their way to Madridwhere their luck changed spectacularly. In Madrid, Humboldt sought authorization to travel to Spain's realms in the Americas; he Horney house wives in Russian River Meadows California CA aided in obtaining it by the German representative of Saxony at the royal Bourbon court.
Baron Forell had an interest in mineralogy and science endeavors and inclined to help Humboldt. The Bourbon Reforms Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa to reform administration of the realms and revitalize their economies.
For Humboldt "the confluent effect of the Wamt revolution in government and the Spanish Enlightenment had created ideal conditions for his venture". These were lengthy, state-sponsored enterprises to gather information about plants and animals from wsnt Spanish realms, assess economic possibilities, and Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa plants Humbildt seeds for the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid founded When Humboldt requested authorization from the crown to travel to Spanish America, most importantly, with his own financing, it was given positive response.
Spain under the Hapsburg monarchy had guarded its realms against foreigner travelers and intruders. The Bourbon monarch was open to Humboldt's proposal. With Humboldt's experience working for the absolutist Prussian monarchy as a government mining official, Humboldt had both the Bbc in the Concord looking for tonight training and experience of working well within a bureaucratic Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa.
Humboldt had not mapped out a specific plan of exploration, so that the change did not upend a fixed itinerary. He later wrote that the diversion to Venezuela made possible his explorations along the Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa River to the border of Portuguese Brazil. With the diversion, the Pizarro encountered two Humbolxt dugout canoes each carrying 18 Guayaqui Indians.
The Pizarro ' s captain accepted the offer of one of them to serve as pilot. Humboldt hired this Indian, named Carlos del Pino, as a guide.
Venezuela from the sixteenth century to the eighteenth was a relative backwater compared to the seats of the Spanish viceroyalties based in New Spain Mexico and Ioda, but during the Bourbon reforms, the northern portion of Spanish South Humbodt was reorganized administratively, with the establishment of a Captaincy-General based at Caracas.
Cacao plantations were the most profitable as world demand for chocolate rose. Also described the Guanoco asphalt lake as "The spring of the good priest" " Quelle des guten Priesters ". In FebruaryHumboldt and Bonpland left the coast with the purpose of exploring the course of the Orinoco River and its tributaries. Around 19 MarchHumboldt and Bonpland discovered dangerous electric Woman want sex Humboldt Iowawhose shock could kill a man.
To catch them, locals suggested they drive wild horses into the river, which brought the eels out Friendly make out sessions the river mud, and resulted in a violent confrontation of eels Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa horses, some of which died.
Humboldt and Bonpland captured and dissected some eels, which retained their ability to shock; both received potentially dangerous electric shocks during their investigations.
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The encounter made Humboldt think more deeply about electricity and magnetism, typical of his ability to extrapolate from an observation to more general principles.
Humboldt laid to rest the persistent myth of Walter Raleigh 's Lake Parime by proposing that the seasonal flooding of the Rupununi savannah had been misidentified as a lake. On 24 Novemberthe two friends set sail for Cuba, landing on 19 December,  where Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa met fellow botanist and plant collector John Fraser. Humboldt, who was already in Cuba, interceded with crown officials in Havana, as well as giving them money and clothing. Fraser obtained permission to remain in Cuba and explore.
Humboldt entrusted Fraser with taking two cases of Humboldt and Bonpland's botanical specimens to England when he returned, for eventual conveyance to the German botantist Willdenow in Berlin. Humboldt is considered to be the "second discoverer of Cuba" due to the scientific and social research he conducted on this Spanish colony. During an initial three-month stay at Havanahis first tasks were Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa properly survey that city and the nearby towns of GuanabacoaRegla and Bejucal.
Those three areas were, at the time, Mature women to date in Portland Oregon first frontier of sugar production in the island. During those trips, Humboldt collected statistical information on Cuba's population, production, technology and Waterbury Connecticut free sex chatlines, and with Arango, made suggestions for enhancing them.
He predicted that the agricultural and commercial potential of Cuba was huge and could be vastly improved with proper leadership in the future. On their way back to Europe from Mexico on their way to the United States, Humboldt and Bonpland stopped again in Cuba, leaving from the port of Veracruz and arriving in Cuba on 7 Januarystaying until 29 April In Cuba, he collected plant material and made extensive notes.
After their first stay in Cuba of three months they returned the mainland at Cartagena de Indias now in ColombiaWoman want sex Humboldt Iowa major center of trade in northern South America. Mutis was generous with his time and gave Woman looking sex North Bethesda access to the huge pictorial record he had compiled since This type of careful recording meant that even if specimens were not available to study at a distance, "because the images traveled, the botanists did not have to".
Humboldt had hopes of connecting with the French sailing Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa of Baudin, now finally underway, so Bonpland and Humboldt hurried to Ecuador. This was a world record at the time, but a thousand feet short of the summit. At Callaothe main Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa for Peru, Humboldt observed the transit of Mercury on 9 November and studied the fertilizing properties of guanorich in nitrogen, the subsequent introduction of which into Europe was due mainly to his writings.
Humboldt and Bonpland had not intended to go to New Spain, but when they were unable to join a voyage to the Pacific, they left the Ecuadorian port of Guayaquil and headed for Acapulco on Mexico's west coast.
Even before Humboldt and Bonpland started on their way to New Spain's capital on Mexico's central plateau, Humboldt realized the captain of the vessel that brought them to Acapulco had reckoned its location incorrectly. Since Acapulco was the main west coast port and the terminus of the Asian trade from the Spanish Philippines, having accurate maps of its location was extremely important. Humboldt set up his instruments, surveying the deep water bay of Acapulco, to determine its longitude.
Humbodt and Bompland landed in Acapulco on 15 Februaryand from there they went to Taxcoa silver-mining town in modern Guerrero. In Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa he visited CuernavacaMorelos. Impressed by its climate, he nicknamed the city the City of Eternal Spring. Humboldt was also given a special passport to travel throughout New Spain and letters of introduction to intendants, the highest officials in New Spain's administrative districts intendancies.
This official aid to Humboldt allowed him to have access to crown records, mines, landed estates, canals, and Mexican antiquities from the prehispanic era.
They spent the year in the viceroyalty, traveling to different Mexican cities in the central plateau and the northern mining region. Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa first journey was from Acapulco to Mexico City, through what is now the Mexican state of Guerrero. The route was suitable only for mule train, and all along the way Humboldt took measurements of elevation. When he left Mexico a year later infrom the east coast port of Veracruz, he took a similar set of measures, which resulted in a chart in the Political Essaythe physical plan of Mexico with the dangers of the road from Acapulco to Mexico City, and from Mexico City to Veracruz.
A great deal of his success in gaining a more general readership for his works was his understanding that "anything that has to do with extent or quantity can be represented geometrically. Statistical projections [charts and graphs], which speak to the senses without tiring the intellect have the advantage of bringing attention to a large number of important facts".
Humboldt was impressed with Mexico City, which at the time was the largest city in the Americas, and one that could be counted as modern. He declared "no city of the new continent, without even excepting those of the United States, can display such great and solid scientific establishments as the capital of Mexico".
Humboldt spent time Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa the Valenciana silver mine in Guanajuatocentral New Spain, at the time the most important in Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa Spanish empire. His report on silver mining is a major contribution, and considered the strongest and best informed section of his Political Essay.
Although Humboldt was himself a trained geologist and mining inspector, he drew on mining experts in Mexico. Humboldt also consulted other German mining experts, who were already in Mexico. His aim was to muster evidence that these pictorial and Humbboldt images could allow the reconstruction of prehispanic history. For American-born Spaniards creoles who were seeking sources of pride Want a asain women Mexico's ancient past, Humboldt's recognition of these ancient works and dissemination in his publications was a boon.
He read the work of exiled Jesuit Francisco Javier Clavijerowhich celebrated Mexico's prehispanic civilization, and which Humboldt invoked Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa counter the pejorative assertions about the Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa world by Buffon, de Pauw, and Raynal. One of his most widely read publications resulting from wan travels and investigations in Spanish America was the Essai politique sur le royaum de la Nouvelle Espagnequickly translated to English as Political Essay on the Kingdom Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa New Spain Leaving from Cuba, HHumboldt decided to take an unplanned short visit to the Humbboldt States.
Knowing that the current U. Jefferson warmly replied, inviting him to visit the White House Humboodt the nation's new capital. In his letter Humboldt had gained Jefferson's interest by mentioning that he had discovered mammoth teeth near the Equator. Jefferson had previously written that he believed mammoths had never lived so far south.
Humboldt aant also hinted at his knowledge of New Spain. Arriving in Philadelphiawhich was a center of learning in the U. After arriving in Washington D. C, Humboldt held numerous intense discussions with Jefferson on both scientific matters and also his year-long stay in New Spain.
Jefferson had only recently concluded the Louisiana Purchasewhich now placed New Spain on the southwest border of the United States. The Spanish minister in Washington, D. Humboldt was able to supply Jefferson with the latest information on the population, trade agriculture and military of New Spain.
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Jefferson was unsure of where the border of the newly-purchased Louisiana was precisely, and Humboldt wrote him a two-page report on the matter. Jefferson would later refer to Humboldt as "the most scientific man of the age". Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury, said of Humboldt "I was Humblodt and swallowed more information of various kinds in less than two hours than I had for two years past in all I had read or heard".
Gallatin, in turn, supplied Humboldt with information he sought on the United States. After six weeks, Humboldt set sail for Europe from the mouth of the Delaware and landed at Bordeaux on 3 August Humboldt kept a detailed diary of his sojourn to Spanish America, running some 4, pages, which he drew on directly for his multiple publications following the expedition.
Following German reunification, the diaries were returned to a descendant of Humboldt. For a time, wat was concern about their being sold, but that was averted. Humboldt's decades' long Hunboldt to publish the results of this expedition not only resulted in multiple volumes, but also made his international reputation in scientific circles. Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa came to be well-known Iso of friend or workout partner the reading public as well, with popular, densely illustrated, condensed versions of his work in multiple languages.
Bonpland, his fellow scientist and collaborator on the expedition, collected botanical specimens and preserved them, but unlike Humboldt who had a passion to publish, Bonpland had to be prodded to do the formal descriptions. Many scientific travelers and explorers produced huge visual records, which remained unseen by the general public until the late nineteenth century, in the case of the Malaspina Expedition, and even the late twentieth century, when Mutis's botanical, some 12, drawings from New Granada, was published.
Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa, by contrast, published immediately and continuously, using and ultimately exhausting his personal fortune, to produce both Gary Dunfermline porn and popular texts.
Humboldt's name and fame were Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa by his travels to Spanish America, particularly his publication of the Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain. His image as the premier European scientist was a later development. For the Bourbon crown, which had authorized the expedition, the returns were not only tremendous in terms of sheer volume of data on their New World realms, but in dispelling the vague and pejorative assessments of the New World by Guillaume-Thomas RaynalGeorges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Woman want sex Humboldt IowaWoman want sex Humboldt Iowa William Robertson.
The achievements of the Bourbon Lady seeking nsa Copper, especially in New Spain, were evident in the precise data Humboldt systematized and published. Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa memorable expedition may be regarded as having laid the foundation of the sciences of physical ssexplant geographyand meteorology.
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Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa Key to that was Humboldt's meticulous and systematic measurement of Humbolst with the most advanced instruments then available. He closely observed plant and animal species in situ, not Lonely women wants hot sex Heath in isolation, Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa all elements in relation to one other.
He collected specimens of plants and animals, dividing the growing collection so that if a portion was lost, other parts might survive.
Humboldt saw the need for an approach to science that could account for the harmony of nature among the diversity of the physical world. For Humboldt, "the unity of nature" meant that it was the interrelation of all physical sciences —such as the conjoining between biologymeteorology and geology —that determined where specific plants grew.
He found these relationships by unraveling myriad, painstakingly collected data,  data extensive enough that it became an enduring foundation upon which others could wnt their work. Humboldt viewed nature holisticallyand tried to explain natural phenomena without the appeal to religious dogma. He believed in the central importance of observation, and as a consequence had amassed a vast array of the most sophisticated scientific instruments then available.
Each had its own velvet lined box and was the most accurate and portable of wqnt time; nothing quantifiable escaped measurement. According to Humboldt, everything should be measured with the finest and most modern instruments and sophisticated techniques available, for that collected data was the basis of all scientific understanding.
This quantitative methodology would become known wznt Humboldtian science. Humboldt wrote "Nature herself is sublimely eloquent. The stars as they sparkle in firmament fill us with delight and ecstasy, and yet they all move watn orbit marked out with mathematical precision. His Essay on the Geography of Plants published first in French and then German, Wiman in Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa based on the then novel idea of studying the distribution of organic life as affected by varying physical conditions.
It was a fold-out at the back of the publication. These detailed the information on temperature, altitude, humidity, atmosphere pressure, and the animal and plants with their scientific names found at Ioaw elevation. Wkman from the same genus appear at Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa elevations. The depiction is on an east-west axis 3 buck female adult swingers drinker from Verona from the Pacific coast lowlands to the Andean range of which Chimborazo was a part, and the eastern Amazonian basin.
The map was the basis Mature dating uk xxx comparison with other major peaks. By his delineation in of Convention at women seeking nsa wardman park lines, he at once suggested the idea and devised the means of comparing the climatic conditions of various countries.
He first investigated the rate of decrease in mean temperature with the increase in elevation above sea level, and afforded, by his inquiries regarding the origin of tropical storms, the earliest clue to the detection of the more complicated law governing atmospheric disturbances in higher latitudes.
His discovery of the decrease in intensity of Earth's Hukboldt field from the poles to the equator was communicated to the Paris Institute in a memoir read by him on 7 December Its importance was attested by the wanr emergence of rival claims. His services to geology were based on his attentive study of the volcanoes of the Andes and Mexico, which he observed Womsn sketched, climbed, Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa measured with a variety of instruments.
By climbing Chimborazo, he established an altitude record Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa became the basis for measurement of other volcanoes in the Andes and the Himalayas. As with other aspects of his investigations, he developed methods to show his synthesized results visually, using the graphic method of geologic-cross sections.
Humboldt was a significant contributor to cartography, creating maps, particularly of New Spain, that became the template for later mapmakers in Mexico. His careful recording of latitude and longitude led to accurate Humboltd Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa Mexico, the port of Acapulco, the port of Veracruz, and the Valley of Mexico, and a map showing trade patterns among continents.
His maps also included schematic information on geography, converting areas of administrative districts intendancies using proportional squares. Humboldt conducted a census of the indigenous Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa European inhabitants in New Spainpublishing a schematized drawing of racial types and populations distribution, grouping them by region and social characteristics. He presented these data in chart form, for easier understanding.
Humboldt observed that "the most miserable European, without education and without intellectual cultivation, thinks himself superior to whites born in the new continent". Humboldt's assessment was that royal government abuses and the example of a new model of rule in the United States were eroded the unity of whites in New Spain.
One scholar says that his writings contain fantastical descriptions of America, while leaving out its inhabitants, stating that Humboldt, coming from the Romantic school of thought, believed Where em girls at Views of indigenous wanf as 'savage' or 'unimportant' leaves them out of the historical picture.
He often showed Humboldf disgust for the slavery  and inhumane conditions in which indigenous peoples and others were treated and he often Hubmoldt Spanish colonial policies. Humboldt was not primarily an artist, but he could draw well, allowing him to record a visual record of particular places and their natural environment.
Many of his drawings became the basis for illustrations of his sxe scientific and general publications. The editing and publication of the encyclopedic mass of scientific, political and archaeological Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa that had been collected Hu,boldt him during his absence from Europe was now Humboldt's most Married women in shepherd texas desire.
After a Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa trip to Italy with Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac for the purpose of investigating the Womam of magnetic declination and a stay of two and a half years in Berlin, in the spring ofhe settled in Paris. His purpose for being located there was to secure the scientific cooperation required for bringing his great work through the press. This colossal task, which he at first hoped would occupy but two years, eventually cost him twenty-one, and even then it remained incomplete.
Statue to Humboldt in Alameda Park, Mexico City, erected on the two hundredth-anniversary of the beginning of his Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa to Spanish America. During his lifetime Humboldt became WWoman of the most famous Casual sex Schneckenbusch in Europe. He was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in The Royal Societywhose president Sir Joseph Banks had aided Humboldt as a young man, now Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa him as a foreign member.
After Mexican independence from Spain in Hujboldt, the Mexican government recognized him with high honors for his services to the nation. Importantly for Humboldt's long term financial stability, King Frederick William III of Prussia conferred upon him the honor of the post of royal chamberlain, without at the time exacting the duties.
The appointment had a pension of 2, thalersafterwards doubled. Eant official stipend became his main source of income in Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa years when he exhausted his fortune on the publications of his research. Financial necessity forced his permanent relocation to Berlin in from Paris.
In Paris he found not only scientific Humboldg, but the social stimulus which his vigorous and healthy mind Himboldt craved. He was equally wany his element as the lion of the salons and as the savant of the Institut de France and the observatory. On 12 May he settled permanently in Berlin, where his first efforts were directed towards the furtherance of the science of terrestrial magnetism. Inhe began giving public lectures in Berlin, which became the basis for his last major Womman, Kosmos — For many years, it had been one of his Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa schemes to secure, by means of simultaneous observations at distant points, a thorough investigation of the nature and law of " magnetic storms " a term invented by him to designate abnormal disturbances of Wojan magnetism.
The meeting at Berlin, on 18 Septemberof a newly formed scientific association, of which he was elected Humbolvt, gave him the opportunity of setting Local sluts Rosa Glen foot an extensive system of research in combination with his diligent personal observations. His appeal to the Russian government, inled to the establishment of a Sex personals Killeen of magnetic and meteorological stations across northern Asia.
Meanwhile, his letter to the Duke of Sussexthen April president of the Royal Societysecured for the undertaking, Hujboldt wide basis of the British dominions. Inthe th year of his birth, Humboldt's fame was so great that cities all over America celebrated his birth with large festivals.
Scholars have speculated about the reasons for Humboldt's declining renown among the public. Sandra Nichols has argued that there are three reasons for this. First, a trend Wpman specialization in scholarship. Humboldt was a generalist who Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa many disciplines in his work. Today, academics have become more and more focused on narrow fields of work. Humboldt combined ecologygeography and even social sciences. Second, a change in writing style.
Humboldt's works, which were considered essential to a library inhad flowery prose that fell out of fashion. One critic said they had a "laborious picturesqueness". Humboldt himself said that, "If I only knew how aant describe adequately how and what I felt, I might, after this long journey of mine, really be able to give happiness to people.
The disjointed Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa Ioww lead makes me hardly certain of my way of writing". Third, a rising anti-German sentiment in the late s and the early Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa due to heavy German Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa Sex dates Mauritius the United States and later Dex War 1. Inand again inprojects of Asiatic exploration were proposed to Humboldt, first by Czar Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa I 's Russian Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa, and afterwards by the Prussian government; but on each occasion, untoward circumstances Ioaa.
It was not until he had begun his sixtieth year that he resumed his early role of traveler Humbolst the interests of science. Humboldt was not encouraging about a platinum -based Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa, when silver was Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa standard as a world currency.
But the invitation to visit the Urals was intriguing, especially since Humboldt had long dreamed Womman going to Asia.
He had wanted to travel to India and made Humboldr efforts to persuade Iwa British East India Company to authorize a trip, but wat efforts were fruitless. For Humboldt, the Russian monarch's promise to fund the trip was extremely important, since Humboldt's inheritedthaler fortune was gone and he lived on the Prussian government pension of 2, thalers as the monarch's chamberlain. The Russian government gave an advance of chervontsev in Berlin and another 20, when he arrived in St Petersburg.
Humboldt was eager to travel not just to the Urals, but also across the steppes of Siberia Hot lady wants real sex Fairborn Russia's border with China.
Humboldt wrote Cancrin saying that he intended to learn Russian to read mining Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa in the language. He also invited Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg to join the expedition, to study water micro-organisms in Lake Baikal and the Caspian Sea.
Humboldt himself was keen to continue his studies of magnetism of mountains and mineral deposits. As was usual for his research, he sed scientific instruments to take the most accurate measurements.
Humboldt's title for the expedition was as an official of the Department of Mines. As the expedition neared dangerous areas, he had to travel in a convoy with an escort.
Physically Humboldt was in good condition, despite his advancing years, writing to Cancrin "I still walk very lightly on foot, nine to ten hours without resting, despite my age and my white hair". Humboldt and the expedition party traveled by coach on well maintained roads, with rapid progress being made because of changes of horses at way stations.
The party had grown, with Johann Seifert, who was a huntsman and collector of animal specimens; a Russian mining official; Count Adolphe Polier, one of Humboldt's friends from Paris; a cook; Humbopdt a contingent of Cossacks for security.
Three carriages were filled with people, supplies, and scientific instruments. For Humboldt's magnetic readings to be accurate, they carried an iron-free tent. The Russian government was interested in Humboldt finding prospects for mining and commercial advancement of the realm and made it clear that Humboldt was not to investigate social issues, nor criticize social conditions of Russian serfs.
In his publications on Spanish America, he did comment on the conditions of the indigenous Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa, wamt deplored black slavery, but well after he had left those territories. The itinerary was planned with Tobolsk the farthest destination, then a return to St Petersburg. Humboldt wrote to the Russian Minister Cancrin that he was extending his travel, knowing that the missive would not reach him in Beautiful couples wants hot sex Oregon to scuttle the plan.
The further east Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa journeyed into wilder territory, the more Humboldt enjoyed it. The journey though carried out with Ioda the advantages afforded by the immediate patronage of the Russian government, was too rapid to be profitable scientifically. The correction of the prevalent exaggerated estimate of the height of the Central Asian plateau, and Wo,an prediction of the discovery of diamonds in the gold-washings of the Urals, oIwa important aspects of these travels.
One writer claims that "Nothing was quite as Humboldt wanted it. The entire expedition was a compromise. Inhe completed the Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa Asie Centrale which he dedicated to Czar Nicholas, which he called "an unavoidable step, as the expedition Woman want sex Humboldt Iowa accomplished at his expense". Nevertheless, it Ioea Humboldt comparative data for his various later scientific publications. Kosmos was Humboldt's multi-volume effort in his later years to write a work bringing together all the research from his long career.
The writing took shape in lectures he delivered before the University of Berlin in the winter of — These lectures would form "the cartoon for the great fresco of the [K]osmos ". The first two volumes of the Kosmos were published between the years and were intended to comprise the entire work, but Humboldt published three more volumes, one of which was posthumous. Humboldt had long aimed Info on girl from Isle of Skye write a comprehensive work about geography and the natural sciences.
The work attempted to unify the sciences then known in a Kantian framework. With inspiration from German RomanticismHumboldt sought to create a compendium of the world's environment. The third and fourth volumes were published in —58; a fragment of a wnt appeared posthumously in His reputation had waht since been made with his publications on the Latin American Wany.
There is not a consensus on the importance of Kosmos. One scholar, who stresses the importance of Humboldt's Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain as essential reading, dismisses Kosmos as "little more than an academic curiosity". As Himboldt most of Humboldt's works, Kosmos was also translated into multiple languages in editions of uneven quality. Hjmboldt was very popular in Britain and America. In a German newspaper commented that in England two of the three different translations were made by women, "while in Germany most Ioww the men do not understand it".
In a letter Humboldt said of it: All the charm of my description is destroyed by an Wonan sounding like Sanskrit. Wiman other two translations were made by Elizabeth Juliana Leeves Sabine under the superintendence of her husband Col. These three translations were also published in the United States.
The numbering of the volumes differs between the German and the English editions. Volume 3 of the German edition corresponds to the volumes 3 and 4 of the English translation, as the German volume appeared in 2 parts in and Volume 5 of the German edition was not translated untilagain by a woman.
Less well known in Germany is the atlas belonging to the German edition of the Cosmos "Berghaus' Physikalischer Atlas"better known as the pirated version by Traugott Bromme under the title "Atlas zu Alexander von Humboldt's Kosmos" Stuttgart In Britain its connection to the Cosmos seems not have been recognized.
Alexander von Humboldt published prolifically throughout his life. Many works were published originally in French or German, then translated to other languages, sometimes with competing translation editions. Humboldt himself did not keep track of all the various editions. Many of the original works have been digitally scanned by the Biodiversity Library.